Appendix and Endnotes

Appendix: Quality of Service

The following factors typically are used to determine Internet quality:

Download speed – Increasing numbers of devices and higher quality video technologies require fast download speeds

Upload speed – fast upload speeds are essential for making effective use of cloud-based technologies and for economic development; they allow users to be creators of content, not just consumers.

Reliability – some technologies are noticeably affected by weather, topography and trees while legacy twisted-pair copper loops still in the ground today typically are near or at their expected life span and will limit future service upgrades no matter what electronics are installed.

Data caps – low data caps limit effective and regular use; a well-connected average household uses approximately 250 GB of data per month

Expense – Some services are more expensive and can be unaffordable as a primary connection for many families. Price per GB varies widely by technology with high-capacity wired networks offering extremely low costs for both bandwidth and use, especially compared to satellite and cellular services.

Latency – Effective use of interactive applications, such as Skype, require low latency (delay) making satellite a poor option for many users.

Appendix: G.fast, Vectoring and Pair Bonding

The chart below illustrates the possible speeds that can be delivered over fiber-fed copper using G.fast.

G.fast performance single and bonded.
Source: ISE Magazine

Vectoring is another technology that can improve DSL speeds over copper, particularly for those closer than 3,000 feet from the DSL cabinet. This online FAQ is an excellent tutorial on different capabilities and issues with DSL technology.

It is also possible to improve DSL speeds using pair bonding, a proven technology. By using two sets of copper wires, broadband capacity can be doubled. Pair bonding is reliant on the availability of copper pairs in a given location. That may or may not be available in every electronics cabinet; bonding is only possible where pairs are available. Copper line quality is an important determinant of broadband capacity as well. Older weathered copper will not be as fast as newer, well maintained copper.

Endnotes

i – Connected Nation. (2017, October). Rural Availability Estimate of Broadband Service in the State of Minnesota. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from https://mn.gov/…

ii – ibid

iii – FCC. (2016, January 29). 2016 Broadband Progress Report. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from https://www.fcc.gov/…

iv – West, D. M., & Karsten, J. (2016, July 18). Rural and urban America divided by broadband access. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from https://www.brookings.edu/…

v – Treacy, A., & Coleman, B. (2017, October). Measuring Impact of Broadband in 5 Rural MN Communities. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from http://mnbroadbandcasestudies.com/

vi – Mississippi State University Extension Service. (2017, April 4). Digital Divide Index (DDI). Retrieved March 5, 2018, from http://ici.msucares.com/…

vii – Buckley, S. (2018, January 10). CenturyLink’s Patel: Broadband expansion will focus on higher speeds, dense areas. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from https://www.fiercetelecom.com/…

viii – Retrieved March 8, 2018 from https://www.fcc.gov/…

ix – Email correspondence between Bill Coleman, Community Technology Advisors, and Andrew Schriner, Director of Government Affairs, CenturyLink, dated January 9-10, 2018.

x – “The FCC has adopted comprehensive reforms of its Universal Service Fund (USF) and Intercarrier Compensation (ICC) systems to accelerate broadband build-out to the approximately 23 million Americans (as of December 31, 2013) who lack access to infrastructure capable of providing 10/1 Mbps fixed broadband” FCC. (2017, February 2). Connect America Fund https://www.fcc.gov/…

xi – FCC. (2014, September). Connect America Phase II – Initial Eligible Areas Map. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from https://www.fcc.gov/…

xii – Increase Your Broadband Speed. (n.d.). Increase Your Broadband Speed. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from https://www.increasebroadbandspeed.co.uk/…

xiii – MN Office of Broadband Development. (n.d.). Minnesota Broadband Goals. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from https://mn.gov/…

xiv – Treacy, A. (2016, May 27). Chisago County Broadband Summit: Surveys results and stories of a community that wants more. Retrieved March 05, 2018, from https://blandinonbroadband.org/…

xv – City Data. (n.d.). Lindstrom, Minnesota. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from http://www.city-data.com/…

xvi – Steil, M. (2018, February 12). Wireless internet to the rescue? New tech could help close connectivity gap. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from https://www.mprnews.org/…

xvii – City Data. (n.d.). Braham, Minnesota. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from http://www.city-data.com/… City Data. (n.d.). Lindstrom, Minnesota. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from http://www.city-data.com/…

xviii – Dawson, D. (2016, September 16). AT&T’s CAF II Plans. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from https://potsandpansbyccg.com/…

xix – FCC. (2014, December 11). FCC INCREASES RURAL BROADBAND SPEEDS UNDER CONNECT AMERICA FUND . Retrieved March 5, 2018, from https://apps.fcc.gov/…

xx – Blandin on Broadband (Director). (2016, May 26). CenturyLink on broadband plans in Chisago County [Video file]. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from https://youtu.be/…

xxi – Buckley, S. (2016, September 22). CenturyLink: We can achieve 50% penetration in areas served by CAF-II. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from https://www.fiercetelecom.com/…

xxii – FCC. (2017, November, 30). Connect America Fund Phase II FAQS. Retrieved March 24, 2018, from https://www.fcc.gov/…

xxiii – Buckley, S. (2018, February 2). CenturyLink, Frontier take lead in CAF-II race, seek complementary wireless technologies. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from https://www.fiercetelecom.com/…

xxiv – Bennet, M. (2017, November 2). Letter from Senator Bennet to Kris Anne Monteith. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from http://nwccog.org/… and King, A. (2015, November 18). King, Capito, Daines Call on FCC to Increase Transparency, Enforcement for Rural Broadband Funding. Retrieved from https://www.king.senate.gov/…

xxv – Buckley, S. (2018, January 18). CenturyLink extends broadband to 600K homes, businesses via CAF-II program. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from https://www.fiercetelecom.com/…

xxvi – Mississippi State University Extension Service. (2017, April 4). Digital Divide Index (DDI). Retrieved March 5, 2018, from http://ici.msucares.com/…

xxvii – Pew Research Center. (2015, August 3). Pew Reveals Who Isn’t Online and Why. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from https://www.ncta.com/…

xxviii – Treacy, A. (2018, February 04). Public-Private Partnership is working with Sunrise Townships, CenturyLink & MN State Grant. Retrieved March 05, 2018, from https://blandinonbroadband.org/…

xxix – Treacy, A. (2017, November 21). DEED announces Border to Border grant recipients for 2017 – $26 Million for 39 Broadband Projects Across Greater Minnesota. Retrieved March 05, 2018, from https://blandinonbroadband.org/…

xxx – FCC. (2015, May 6). Alternative Connect America Cost Model (A-CAM). Retrieved March 5, 2018, from https://www.fcc.gov/…

Impact of CAF II-funded Networks